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Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilicus primarily affecting neonates. It is uncommon in developed countries but remains a common problem in underdeveloped countries where health care is not readily available [].The devitalized tissue of the umbilical cord is prone to bacterial infection as it is rich in substrate with a lack of normal skin barrier and the undergoing ischemia after the. Omphalitis. For comparison, this is the appearance of a full-blown case of omphalitis. The progression of erythema over time can be clearly seen from the circles marked on the abdomen. The first circle was drawn less than 12 hours after redness was initially seen, and the second circle was drawn several hours after that

Omphalitis is the medical term for a severe infection of the umbilical cord stump. In the United States, omphalitis is very rare, thanks to the infection control procedures in hospitals and routine standards of umbilical cord care.. Yet, these nasty infections do happen in about 1 in 200 newborns Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilical stump. [ 1] It typically presents as a superficial cellulitis that can spread to involve the entire abdominal wall and may progress to necrotizing fasciitis, myonecrosis, or systemic disease. Omphalitis is uncommon in industrialized countries outside the setting of umbilical vessel catherization. Definition of Omphalitis with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information. Lexic.us. Medical Definition of Omphalitis. 1. Inflammation of the umbilicus and surrounding parts. (05 Mar 2000) Lexicographical Neighbors of Omphalitis Dermatologic disorders of the umbilicus are by no means rare. However, there recently came under my observation a patient with a condition which I had not previously seen. A search of the literature revealed only few reports concerning this entity, none of these being in the dermatologic literature... Omphalitis Also known as Mushy Chick Disease & Yolk Sack infection Omphalitis is a common cause of death in chicks during the first week of life and most common with artificially hatched chicks. It is a bacterial infection of the yolk sac. Various bacteria may be involved in yolk sack infection

In low-income communities, omphalitis occurs in up to 8% of infants born in hospitals and in as many as 22% of infants born at home, in whom omphalitis is moderate to severe in 17% and associated with sepsis in 2%. 19 Depending on how omphalitis is defined, case-fatality rates as high as 13% have been reported. 4 The development of necrotizing. Categories: Age site specific. Subcategories: Congenital malformations of the umbilicus, Acquired malformations of the umbilicus, Skin diseases of the umbilicus, Infections of the umbilicus, Benign tumours of the umbilicus, Malignant tumours of the umbilicus, Systemic diseases presenting with umbilical signs, Cullen sign. ICD-10 Omphalitis is a noncontagious infection of the navel and/or yolk sac in young poultry. It is more likely in unclean environments, which allow opportunistic bacterial infection. Signs include navel inflammation, anorexia, depression, reduced weight gain, and increased mortality in the first 2 weeks after hatching Omphalitis Omphalitis is an infection of the cord stump or its surrounding tissues. It presents most commonly in the newborn; the mean age at onset is 5-9 days, or earlier in preterm infants. The risk of omphalitis is increased by a number of maternal factors (prolonged rupture of membranes, materna Omphalitis is an infection around the umbilical stump that first manifests as redness and erythema and can progress to life threatening sepsis.The devitalized stump provides a fertile medium for bacterial growth. Common infective agents include Staph. aureus, Streptococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Infection is linked to handling and poor hygiene and a rash of cases in the 1950s lead to regular.

Introduction. Omphalitis is inflammation of the umbilical structures and may include the umbilical arteries, umbilical vein, urachus and/or tissues immediately surrounding the umbilicus.. Omphalophlebitis is inflammation and/or infection of the umbilical vein.; Omphaloarteritis is inflammation and/or infection of the umbilical arteries (both or singly).. Images: Cases and figures; Epidemiology. The estimated occurrence can be up to 1:4000 of live births 3. Pathology. Typically a large anterior abdominal wall defect will be present, through which liver and/or bowel herniate, covered by a peritoneal membrane as well as amnion. The umbilical cord typically inserts at or near the apex Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilical stump. It typically presents as a superficial cellulitis that can spread to involve the entire abdominal wall and may progress to necrotizing fasciitis, myonecrosis, or systemic disease Omphalitis is a polymicrobial infection of the umbilical stump. The mean age of onset is 5-9 days in full-term infants and 3-5 days in preterm infants. It is typically caused by a mix of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The most common identified organisms include Staphylococcus aureus, group A Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella. Omphalitis (om-fuh-LY-tis) is an infection of the umbilical stump, the portion of the umbilical cord that stays attached to a baby when the cord is cut. More to Know. During pregnancy, the umbilical cord carries nutrients and oxygen from a mother to her unborn baby. After the baby is born, the umbilical cord is cut and a small piece is left.

Congenital malformation | Metabolic & Miscellaneous

Clinical Image: Omphalitis Insight Medical Publishin

Omphalitis, also known as yolk_sac_infection, Nevel ill and ' Mushy Chicks Disease. It is the main infectious cause of death in newly hatched chicks, during their first week of life. It is most commonly caused by infection with Escherichia coli bacteria (approximately 70% of cases). however other bacterial infections like salmonella can. omphalitis (om-fă-ly-tis) n. inflammation of the navel, especially in newborn infants. Source for information on omphalitis: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary A Newborn with an Umbilical Mass. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Apr 15;71 (8):1590-1592. A six-week-old male infant was brought to the office by his mother. During a diaper change, she noted a lesion in. Please note: images that have a white symbol at the top right, such as the Bullous Impegito image below, indicates an image gallery that has multiple images - click on the image to open the gallery. Omphalitis. Inflammation of the umbilical stump (omphalitis) most commonly occurs after day 3 Clinical Image: Omphalitis Zahouani T, Recinos A and Mota J Department of Pediatrics, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, USA Corresponding author: Tarik Zahouani, Department of Pediatrics, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, 237 East 149th St Bronx, NY 10451, USA , Tel: 718-579-5030; E-mail: Tarikzahouani@gmail.co

Omphalitis is a common problem in developing countries, and a wide range of complications requiring surgery may occur. We conducted a retrospective review of 19 neonates and infants treated for. Omphalitis is superficial cellulitis involving the umbilical cord. May present as simple erythema extending beyond the base of the umbilical cord. Superficial infection well, you may think that isn't a big deal but it is. Reports of 10% - 16% of omphalitis progress to Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall (that is bad) Infected umbilical cord stumps are rare. However, they can be a life-threatening condition. Early identification and treatment can improve a baby's outlook. We share pictures, plus signs to watch. Omphalitis Omphalitis is an infection of the cord stump or its surrounding tissues. It presents most commonly in the newborn; the mean age at onset is 5-9 days, or earlier in preterm infants. The risk of omphalitis is increased by a number of maternal factors (prolonged rupture of membranes, materna omphalitis occurs in up to 8% of infants born in hospitals and in as many as 22% of infants born at home, in whom omphalitis is moderate to severe in 17% and associated with sepsis in 2%. 19 Depending on how omphalitis is defined, case-fatality rates as high as 13% have been reported. 4 The development of necrotizing fasciitis

Umbilical Cord Newborn Nursery Stanford Medicin

Omphalitis is a pathology that can be seen, therefore, despite the rapid prevalence of inflammation in omphalitis, it should be diagnosed even by mothers on the basis of a visual assessment of the navel. Untimely diagnosis and treatment of omphalitis leads to disability or death of children. Therefore, a warning, timely diagnosis, effective. Thermographic images of healthy calves show that T max of the lateral umbilical region was located cranially to the navel, close to the abdominal wall insertion . Whilst on omphalitis group animals T max was mostly located at a distal point to the navel. Download : Download high-res image (2MB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 3 MSD and the MSD Veterinary Manual. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well An adult patient with omphalitis was treated successfully by conservative measures. Spontaneous extrusion of a mass of hair and sebum concretion was the final episode. The author stresses the rarity of the condition, its dissimilarity to the variety seen in infants, its resemblance to infected..

Omphalitis In Newborns — Causes, Treatment for Infected

Omphalitis 2Impact of E

Pyogenic granuloma is an acquired benign proliferation of capillary blood vessels of the skin and oral cavity. The name is a misnomer as it is a form of lobular capillary haemangioma, not due to infection. Pyogenic granuloma has many synonyms including granuloma gravidarum or pregnancy tumour when occurring in pregnancy A baby boy was brought to the hospital at 6 days of age with swelling and discharge from the umbilicus. We examined him, and found a febrile, irritable infant with extensive erythema, induration and tenderness around a black umbilicus (figure). We started broad spectrum antibiotics. A complete blood count showed neutrophilic leucocytosis and culture of the umbilical stump culture grew E coli. Esophageal Varices. Esophageal varices are enlarged or swollen veins on the lining of the esophagus. Varices can be life-threatening if they break open and bleed. Treatment is aimed at preventing liver damage, preventing varices from bleeding, and controlling bleeding if it occurs. Appointments 216.444.7000 Omphalitis is an inflammation of the umbilicus of the calf is infected, by bacteria's contamination of and it occurs 2-5 days after the birth. In omphalitis, umbilicus following parturition. The infection spreads via the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is a umbilicus is enlarged, painful on palpation and may b

An infection of a newborn's belly button, omphalitis or belly button infection usually occurs while the umbilical stump is still fresh after birth. It mostly affects newborns within the first few days of birth. Symptoms such as redness or pus buildup are mostly visible within the first three to five days. In premature babies, the symptoms. Staged surgery was performed for 18 patients. Neither recurrent omphalitis nor subsequent urachal carcinoma was observed. It is desirable that urachal cyst accompanied by intractable omphalitis should be treated by conservative therapy, conducted image diagnosis, and chosen staged surgery Omphalitis, yolk sack infection is caused by a bacterium that enters through the porous egg shell and easily kills embryo's and newly hatched chicks. Unfortunately, incubation conditions are ideal for breeding bacteria as well as incubating eggs Care of the umbilicus and management of umbilical disorders. At birth, the umbilical cord, which provided vascular flow between the fetus and placenta, is clamped and cut. Within the first week of life, the remnant umbilical cord stump separates from the neonate, creating the umbilicus (commonly referred to as the navel) Click on images to enlarge: Omphalitis is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Dr. [sickkids.ca] ] and neonatal mortality.

Omphalitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiolog

Omphalitis of newborn‎ (1 F) P Pathology of the umbilical cord‎ (3 C, 4 F) U Ultrasound images of umbilical cord‎ (16 F) Umbilical clamp‎ (23 F) Media in category Human umbilical cor Community based identification and management of omphalitis will require standardised clinical sign based definitions. OBJECTIVE: To identify optimal sign based algorithms to define omphalitis in the community and to evaluate the reliability and validity of cord assessments by non-specialist health workers for clinical signs of omphalitis images of the abdominal region were captured with calves on dorsal recumbency. To avoid interferences from dirty and humidity on the thermal imaging, before images were taken, animals were kept standing on a dry and clean place, away from direct sunlight for at least 15 min. All images from healthy and omphalitis groups where obtained durin Basic Aviculture Vocabulary & Concepts: Images and Facts to Help You 'Talk the Talk' Are you confident in your medical approach to pediatric health problems ranging from constricted toes to omphalitis, but hazy on the details of incubation and hatch? Many avian veterinarians deal with aviculturists only sporadically, which can diminish your. A composite definition for omphalitis that combined pus and redness without regard to swelling was the most sensitive and specific. Conclusions: Two sign based algorithms for defining omphalitis are recommended for use in the community. Focusing on redness extending to the skin around the base of the stump will identify cases of moderate and.

Omphalitis: Definition with Omphalitis Pictures and Photo

The umbilical stump is what's left of the umbilical cord after it is cut in the delivery room. Keep the stump clean and dry until it falls off, usually by 2 weeks. Omphalitis is a potentially serious infection of the umbilicus. An umbilical granuloma is a common treatable condition. Persistent bleeding from the stump should be evaluated by a. Omphalitis Omphalitis may be defined technically as an inflamation of the navel. As commonly used, the term refers to improper closure of the navel with subsequent bacterial infection (navel ill, mushy chick disease). Cause: Most problems result from mixed bacterial infections including the common coliforms and various species belongin Images (0) Lab Test (0) Tables (1) Videos (0) Common Causes of Portal Vein Thrombosis* Portal vein thrombosis causes portal hypertension and consequent gastrointestinal bleeding from varices, usually in the lower esophagus or stomach. In neonates and children, treatment is directed at the cause (eg, omphalitis, appendicitis)

Umbilical vessels composed of 2 arteries and 1 vein. Umbilicus separates within 2-3 weeks of delivery. Dries and separates by 8 days in most infants. Usually separation site heals by 15 days. III. Management: Routine care of Umbilicus. Initial care: Clean cord and surrounding skin. Sterile water or. Mild cleanser with neutral pH (5.5 to 7.0 Field workers were trained on signs of omphalitis (by L.C.M.) using a previously validated standard protocol and a set of training images of the cord stump and infection. 8. Analysis. The primary outcome of interest was death within 28 days after birth

Primary Omphalitis in an Adult JAMA Dermatology JAMA

Omphalitis, or yolk sac infection, can be a multifactorial problem seen in chicks less than 1 week of age. Chicks that have been stressed by incorrect incubator/hatcher temperature and humidity or chicks that are weak or undersized at hatch are predisposed to bacterial infection. This infection usually arises from poor hygiene in the hatcher or. Background: In developing countries, newborn omphalitis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Community based identification and management of omphalitis will require standardised clinical sign based definitions. Objective: To identify optimal sign based algorithms to define omphalitis in the community and to evaluate the reliability and validity of cord assessments by non.

Mushy Chick Disease ~ Yolk Sack infection ~ OMPHALITIS

  1. Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of localized and invasive suppurative infections and 3 toxin-mediated syndromes: toxic shock syndrome , scalded skin syndrome, and food poisoning (see Staphylococcal Food Poisoning, p 714).Localized infections include cellulitis, skin and soft tissue abscesses, pustulosis, impetigo (bullous and nonbullous), paronychia, mastitis, ecthyma, erythroderma.
  2. The capture of digital images of the umbilical cord stump and surrounding skin will enhance the diagnostic specificity of reported omphalitis cases. Data analyses Baseline characteristics of the mothers, their households and the newborns will be compared between the intervention and comparison arms to check for comparability and identify.
  3. Portal vein thrombosis causes portal hypertension and consequent gastrointestinal bleeding from varices, usually in the lower esophagus or stomach. Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography. Treatment involves control of variceal bleeding (usually with endoscopic banding, IV octreotide, or both), prevention of recurrence using beta-blockers, and.
  4. Photos of the album Clinical issues. Share your pictures on Engormix like Sai Mahesh Reddy did. Ref: 5245
  5. Media in category Omphalitis The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total

Omphalitis On the Web Most recent articles. Most cited articles. Review articles. CME Programs. Powerpoint slides. Images. American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Omphalitis All Images X-rays Echo & Ultrasound CT Images MRI; Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov. US National Guidelines Clearinghouse. NICE Guidance. FDA on Omphalitis. CDC on. Omphalocele (pronounced uhm-fa-lo-seal) is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. The infant's intestines, liver, or other organs stick outside of the belly through the belly button. The organs are covered in a thin, nearly transparent sac that hardly ever is open or broken Omphalitis is a polymicrobial infection of the umbilical stump in neonates. Pathogenicity ranges from localized cellulitis to systemic disease. Omphalitis is a leading cause of infant mortality in less developed countries where provisions for proper healthcare services are inadequate. Omphalitis: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis A condition seen worldwide in chickens, turkeys and ducks due to bacterial infection of the navel and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks as a result of contamination before healing of the navel. Disease occurs after an incubation period of 1-3 days. Various bacteria may be involved, especially E. coli, Staphylococci, Proteus, Pseudomonas cause omphalitis or even sepsis.23 A 96-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of recurrent fever and loss of appetite. A diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made based on the presence of pyuria and bacteriuria. However, we incidentally noticed a hard, smooth and well moving palpable mass just under the navel on abdominal examination

Omphalitis As commonly used, the term refers to improper closure of the navel with subsequent bacterial infection (navel ill; mushy chick disease). Apparently, most problems result from mixed bacterial infections including the common coliforms and various species belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, and others The Veterinary Pathology Image Database is a website created by the Servei de Diagnòstic de Patologia Veterinària - SDPV (Veterinary Pathology Diagnostic Service). This Service belongs to the Veterinary School of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain. This image database consists of a selection of digital images and scanned. Fig. 1. Picture showing removed umbolith with omphalitis and surrounding cellulitis. Full size image. Umbilical discharge in adult is rare, can be quite alarming and could be congenital or acquired, but is usually caused by a foreign material, most commonly hair. Obesity, deep umbilicus and poor hygiene seem to be the predisposing factors The most frequent health threats Omphalitis [ navel ill ] Enteritis [ diarrhea ] Pneumonia 13. Omphalitis [ navel ill ] • Inflammation of navel due to infection by bacteria • Swelling of navel, pain reaction, fever, pus discharge • Treatment: Injection of antibiotic , anti- inflammatory, wound spray 14 Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilical cord stump. Tracking bacteria along the umbilical vessels may lead to septicaemia, which can result in neonatal morbidity and mortality . The average age of presentation of omphalitis is the third or fourth day of life of the newborn [5,7-9]

Omphalitis, also known as yolk sac infection, is a common cause of death of newly hatched chicks. It is most commonly caused by infection with Escherichia coli bacteria (approximately 70% of cases), however Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus spp, Enterobacter hafniae, Klebsiella spp. , Pseudomonas spp, and Aspergillus fumigatus are also frequent causes Gastroschisis occurs more often than omphalocele. But both conditions are considered rare. The National Institutes of Health reports that about 2 to 6 out of 10,000 newborns in the United States. Universal precautions to be maintained. Follow these precautions when caring for the umbilical cord: Wash your hands. Place cord clamp x 1 approximately 2 cm from skin. If LUSCS or high-risk baby, cord is clamped 4-5 cm from skin. Cord is checked for ooze hourly for two hours after birth. Midwife to check cord area daily and record cord status The term omphalitis is defined as inflammation of the. rupture of the uterus. The term hysterorrhexis is defined as. oligohydramnios. (images) pertaining to the pelvis. The term pelvic sonography is defined as. amniocentesis. A surgical puncture to aspirate amniotic fluid is called The images below demonstrate findings in a case of omphalitis (left) associated with extensive myonecrosis (right). A case of omphalitis (left) associated with extensive myonecrosis (right). View.

Pseudo-omphalocele is a spurious sonographic appearance giving an impression of an anterior abdominal wall defect.. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound. Pseudo-omphalocele may be seen in: scanning errors where there is a deformation of the fetal abdomen by transducer pressure and the image is being scanned in an oblique manne images of the umbilical cord were collected. Workers responsible for in-home examinations of the signs of omphalitis has not yet been assessed, and comparing worker assessments with those of a. Key Points. Cellulitis is a spreading infection of the skin extending to involve the subcutaneous tissues. Many conditions present similarly to cellulitis — always consider differential diagnoses. The typical presenting features of all skin infections include soft tissue redness, warmth and swelling, but other features are variable

Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant American

  1. Learn more about omphalitis. Areas of sloughing of superficial skin and pale, white, leathery appearance suggest possible third degree burn with surrounding blister formation. Learn more about bullous impetigo. Crops of monomorphic vesicles on dorsal hand and fingers. Learn more about herpes simplex viru
  2. However, omphalitis can occur if the belly button becomes infected. It is a rare condition with an incidence rate of just 0.7%. Symptoms. Symptoms typically appear after 3 days and may include
  3. The urachus is the tube within the umbilical cord through which urine from the unborn foal travels from the bladder to the allantois (a fluid filled sac surrounding the unborn foal). Normally, the urachus closes at the time of birth and the navel dries and shrivels up within hours of birth. When the urachus does not close (persistent urachus), or closes and re-opens at a later date (patent.
  4. Tenderness, yellow, green or bloody foul-smelling discharge, swelling, pain, and a scab or ulcer can develop in the belly button. A variety of bacteria and yeast naturally colonize the skin and folds of the navel. When they have an opportunity to proliferate or invade deeper into the skin, they can cause infection including impetigo
  5. g, case fatality, and incidence of non‐tetanus umbilical cord infection await identification of the best set of clinical signs to define infection. Evaluation of the performance of community health workers in recognising signs of omphalitis is a crucial step in.
  6. Activity Description. Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilicus and/or surrounding tissues, occurring primarily in the neonatal period. It is a true medical emergency that can rapidly progress to systemic infection and death, with an estimated mortality rate between 7 and 15 percent
  7. algorithms to define omphalitis in the community and to evaluate the reliability and validity of cord assessments by non-specialist health workers for clinical signs of omphalitis. Design: Within a trial of the impact of topical antiseptics on umbilical cord infection in rural Nepal, digital images of the umbilical cord were collected

Encephalitis is inflammation of the active tissues of the brain caused by an infection or an autoimmune response. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which can lead to headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, mental confusion and seizures. Encephalitis strikes 10-15 people per 100,000 each year, with more than 250,000 patients. Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term Nonphysiologic Neonatal Jaundice. Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window Discharge or a foul smell of any kind in the umbilical area (belly button) is always a sign of a complication. The least problematic of any other is hygiene. If your concern is simply a foul smell without discharge there needs to be an increase in physical hygiene. This may simply cover taking extra time [

Skin problems on and around the umbilicus DermNet N

Patients. Consecutive cases of neonatal omphalitis admitted at a regional special care baby unit during a 5-year period formed the study cohort; 207 cases of omphalitis among 11 260 births (9528 hospital births and 1732 home births) were studied. Methods. Proportional risk factors and clinical, bacteriologic and relevant investigational profiles and outcomes were studied in neonates with. When you see a chicken with cross beak, you know it! Cross beak is exactly what it sounds like: a chicken's beak is crossed, or the top and the bottom don't match up exactly when the bird's mouth is closed. While this may cause great concern for the chicken-keeper, thankfully, in most cases, the bird can go on to live a relatively normal life

Upper part of trunk. Normally, pyogenic granulomas look like a beefy, red bump which enlarges rapidly over a few weeks. On the average, pyogenic granulomas are approximately 5 to 10 mm in diameter. They can bleed easily and in mot cases can be quite tender. Rarely more than 1 lesion can grow at the same site at the same time Start studying Med term ch. 8 and 9. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin. It specifically affects the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Signs and symptoms include an area of redness which increases in size over a few days. The borders of the area of redness are generally not sharp and the skin may be swollen. While the redness often turns white when pressure is applied, this is not always the case

Video: Omphalitis - Veterinary Manua

Perianal and periumbilical dermatitis: Report of a womanNecrotizing Fasciitis: What We Have Learned - emdocs

Septicemia, or sepsis, is the clinical name for blood poisoning by bacteria. It is the body's most extreme response to an infection. Sepsis that progresses to septic shock has a death rate as high as 50%, depending on the type of organism involved. Sepsis is a medical emergency and needs urgent medical treatment Acute liver failure is caused most often by drugs and hepatitis viruses. Cardinal manifestations are jaundice, coagulopathy, and encephalopathy. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is mainly supportive, sometimes with liver transplantation and/or specific therapies (eg, N - acetylcysteine for acetaminophen toxicity) Community based identification and management of omphalitis will require standardised clinical sign based definitions. OBJECTIVE: To identify optimal sign based algorithms to define omphalitis in the community and to evaluate the reliability and validity of cord assessments by non-specialist health workers for clinical signs of omphalitis Omphalitis was defined of infection: redness, pus, and swelling, and their skills under various sign-based algorithms representing mild, were evaluated through repeated (quarterly) assessment moderate, and severe omphalitis[11,12]. Other a priori of these images